Report (1.3)

When starting with the project I wasn’t too familiar with most tags I briefly had limited information on HTML but I wasn’t aware with CSS and XHTML so whilst learning about the protocols of web coding I’ve gathered information on all the extended tags and how beneficial they are on running a successful website appealing to the eye with suitable format.


HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main source for displaying information on the web these elements of html have to be used in angle brackets (html) < like this.

HTML usually come in pairs starting with <h> and ending with </h> to make the code function correctly if the web designer wanted to add any extra text they would do so between the two codes. These HTML codes enable a website to add images and text which is vital to practically all websites.

HTML is also split up into may other divisions:

HTML by Function
HTML Attributes
HTML Events
HTML Canvas
HTML Audio/Video
HTML Colornames
HTML Colorpicker
HTML Colormixer
HTML Character Sets
HTML ISO-8859-1
HTML Symbols
HTML Lang Codes
HTTP Messages

Semantic HTML has been introduced in the last decade which allows web designers to update the font.

HTML consists of nearly 100 different tags with there being four main ones used for a website format to function presentably.

  • The <!DOCTYPE… > which informs the browser which version of HTML the document is using.
  • The <html> element which uses all tags inside of it’s brackets (except for the !DOCTYPE tag).
  • The <head> tag holds information which isn’t viewable with the browser such as meta tags, JavaScript and CSS), although the use of the <title> tag is an exception. The <title> tag is displayed in the browser’s title bar.
  • The <body> tag is the main area of content. Which is where most of your code (and viewable elements) will go.
  • The <p> tag informs the browser that a new paragraph is needed this contains the body text.

Advantages of HTML

  • It’s not complex, very straight forward.
  • Flexible and is supported on almost every browser.
  • It’s commonly used on most servers too.
  • Similar to XTL which is renowned for the increase in data storage.
  • The accessibility is free.
  • Easy to get around and use.

Disadvantages of HTML

  • It cannot produce dynamic output alone, since it is a static language
  • The structuring can be difficult to get around.
  • You have to be aware not to use deprecated tags because they appear in another language that works with HTML has replaced the original work of the tag; meaning the other language needs to be learned (most of the time, it is CSS)
  • Security features are low and limited.


JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.

JavaScript is programming code that can be inserted into HTML pages to be executed by web browser.

Many HTML designers are not programmers, but JavaScript is has a simple syntax and anyone can put “snippets” of JavaScript code into HTML pages.

Advantages of JavaScript

  • The general speed of JavaScript is fast because the code functions run automatically without waiting on the server.
  • Likewise with the HTML element JavaScript is also very straightforward.
  • JavaScript can be used in other languages and various applications unlike PHP and SSI script JavaScript can also be used on any web page no matter the file size.
  • JavaScripts load fast and sufficiently.

Disadvantages of JavaScript

  • Also like the HTML elements the security on JavaScript is very low exposing it which means most people disable the JavaScript to avoid any viruses etc.
  • JavaScript is  shown differently by different browsers. When server-side scripts produce the same output, client-side scripts can be a little unpredictable.


  • CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets its style defines how a HTML element is displayed these ‘styles’ were added to HTML 4.0 to solve a problem the External Style Sheets can save a lot of work which are stored in CSS files.

Advantages of CSS

  • Different style sheets can be used for the same page this increases accessibility, as well as providing the ability cater to a vast amount of sites to different target devices. Furthermore, devices not able to understand the styling will still display the content.
  • The flexibility of combining CSS with the functionality of a Content Management System, allows a contributor, who may not be familiar or able to understand or edit CSS or HTML code to select the layout of a page they are submitting in the same format.
  • The consistency  when CSS is used can be used to affect and style elements site-wide. If for a reason any of the elements need to be adjusted, these changes can be made promptly by editing a few rules in the global stylesheet.

Disadvantages of CSS

  •  Margins collapse while well-documented and useful, also complicated and is frequently not expected by authors, and no simple side-effect-free way is available to control it.
  •  Inconsistent browser support  renders the CSS layout with the lack of support for CSS features.
  •  Vertical Control Limitation – While horizontal placement of elements is generally easy to control, vertical placement is frequentlyimpossible. Simple tasks, such as centering an element vertically or getting a footer to be placed no higher than bottom of viewport come with hard tasks and unsupported rules.
  • Control of Element Shapes – CSS currently only offers rectangular shapes. Rounded corners or other shapes may require non-semantic markup. In addition to this there’s a vertical control limitation meaning simple tasks for instance getting a footer to be placed at the bottom of viewport.
  • * Poor layout although new additions to CSS3 offer a stronger feature-set CSS is still a styling language, not a layout language.

CSS Test Shot:








<!DOCTYPE html>
<style type=”text/css”>
font-family:”Times New Roman”;


<h1>Ayoife’s example at CSS!</h1>
<p>This is my first test shot at using CSS.
I think CSS is important as it gives a website a good format</p>


Lesson Four:

Today I managed to complete task 1.2 which covered me researching the source codes for different websites I also learnt that you could type in the I.P address: a unique set of numbers which identifies a specific computer system to the internet allowing you to trace anything done on the internet back to the user also the I.P address can be used as an alternative for a website domain name which still presents the user with the website.